Facing History (4) (Tides of the Continuum)
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Ports are subject to an active governance. Due to the growing level of complexity of port operations, public port authorities were created at the beginning of the 20th century. Administratively, port authorities are regulating infrastructure investments, its organization and development and its relationships with customers using its services. Port Authority. An entity of state or local government that owns, operates, or otherwise provides wharf, dock and other marine terminal investments and services at ports.
The main rationale behind the setting of many port authorities was their ability to manage more efficiently port facilities as a whole rather than privately owned and operated terminals. Since port facilities were becoming more complex and capital intensive, it was perceived that public agencies would be better placed to raise investment capital and mitigate the risk of such investments. Port authorities tend to be vertically integrated entities as they are involved in most of the activities related to port operations, from the construction and maintenance of infrastructure to the marketing and management of port services.
Yet, their activities were limited within their jurisdictions, an attribute that became increasingly at odds with the transformations of the maritime shipping industry through globalization. Occasionally, terminals were leased to private companies but throughout the greater part of the 20th century, public ownership and operation of ports was dominant. Most port authorities are owned by federal, state or municipal agencies. As public agencies, many port authorities were seen by governments as a source of revenue and were mandated to perform various non-revenue generating community projects, or at least to provide employment.
The emergence of specialized and capital-intensive container terminals servicing global trade has created a new environment for the management of port terminals, both for port authorities and terminal operators. Port authorities are gradually incited to look at a new array of issues related to the governance of their area and are increasingly acting as cluster managers , interacting with a variety of stakeholders and marketing the port. With the availability and diffusion of information technologies, port authorities have been proactive in developing port community systems enabling many key actors to better interact and share information, such as customs, freight forwarders and carriers.
Port holding. An entity, commonly private, that owns or lease port terminals in a variety of locations. It is also known as a port terminal operator. They thus tend to be horizontally integrated entities focusing on terminal operations in a variety of locations. The main tool for global port operators to achieve control of port terminals has been through concession agreements.
A concession agreement is a long-term lease of port facilities involving the requirement that the concessionaire undertakes capital investments to build, expand, or maintain the cargo-handling facilities, equipment, and infrastructure to satisfy a minimum level. Several issues are involved in the decision of a terminal operator to invest in a particular port, namely the transparency of the bidding process and the quality of infrastructures port and inland.
The market potential however remains one of the determining criteria. The range of port terminals controlled by port holdings covers several of the largest freight markets. As globalization permitted the emergence of large multinational corporations managing assets in a variety of locations, global port holdings are a similar trend concerning the management of port terminal assets. Yet, regional orientation remains a strong characteristic of container terminal operators. The emergence of global terminal operators has changed the parameters of port competition.
Ports have always to some extent been competing to service their hinterland, which is known as inter-port competition. Concessions agreements in larger port have permitted the setting of more than one terminal operator who are now competing over the port foreland and addition to the hinterland.
This is known as intra-port competition. The evolution of transport terminal development has been examined most extensively in port site studies. The site of the port is thus the object of a process of valorization through capital investments in infrastructures, the convergence of inland and maritime transport networks with their flows as well as the complex management of the concerned supply chains. Port development can be perceived within a sequential perspective , where each phase builds upon the previous, from port cities of the 19th century to the emerging port logistics network of the 21st century.
Conventionally, port terminals where located close to city cores as many where the initial rationale for the existence of the city. The proximity to downtown areas also insured the availability of large pools of workers to perform the labor intensive transshipment activities that used to characterize port operations. But these activities tended to have low productivity levels as a stevedoring team could handle 10 to 15 tons per day and a berth could handle , tons per year.
At their peak in the early s ports such as London and New York each employed more than 50, longshoremen. Containerization had the dramatic impact of lowering the need for labor for port operations. For instance, the number of longshoremen jobs in the Port of New York and New Jersey declined from 35, in the s to about 3, in the s. Over time, changes in ships and handling equipment gave rise to new site requirements. By the post World War II period a growing specialization of vessels emerged, especially the development of bulk carriers.
These ships were the first to achieve significant economies of scale, and their size grew very quickly. There was thus a growing vessel specialization using semi-automated transshipment equipment and increase in size which resulted in new site requirements, especially the need for dock space and greater water depths. The mechanization of cargo handling and the storage requirements because of greater vessel capacities have greatly extended the space demands for port activities.
The expansion of Chinese ports, such as Shanghai, has required altogether the use of entirely new sites outside central areas. Further, growing ship sizes have implied several new constraints for port sites such as deeper waterways, larger terminal space, both for ship handling and warehousing, and more efficient inland road and rail access. Modern port infrastructures are often intensive in capital and several port authorities are struggling to keep up with large infrastructure investment requirements.
However, the presence of infrastructures does not necessarily guarantee traffic as maritime companies can select the ports they service as business opportunities changes. Over this, three recent mega projects are particularly revealing:. They remain bound to the economic structure and dynamism of the hinterland they service.
Another aspect in port development concerns the automation of port terminal operations. Although container ports are highly mechanized entities, the equipment is manually operated. It is therefore possible to automate one or all three of the main stages of port operations; the portainer ship to shore moves , the dock to stacking yard movements lateral moves and the stacking yard gantry cranes. A growing number of container terminals are being automated, either fully or partially.
A notable advantage of automation is the ability to operate on several work shifts per day. Although a conventional container terminal can add additional work shifts if required, this is easier to implement in automated terminals since less workers are involved. As a result, automated terminals are usually twice as productive as standard mechanized terminals.
The current development phase underlines that ports are going beyond their own facilities to help accommodate additional traffic and the complexity of freight distribution, namely by improving hinterland transportation. Port regionalization is such an outcome and indicates a higher level of integration between maritime and inland transport systems, particularly by using rail and barge transportation, which are less prone to congestion than road transportation.
The development of global supply chains increased the pressure on maritime transport, port operations, and on inland freight distribution, which in turn has incited the setting of satellite terminals and transloading activities in the vicinity of port terminals. Regionalization is a process that can take place both of the foreland and the hinterland with the goal to provide a continuity between the maritime and inland freight transport systems. Inland accessibility has become a cornerstone in port competitiveness since it can be serviced by several road, rail and barge transportation.
Port regionalization is characterized by strong functional interdependency and even joint development of a specific load center and logistics platforms in the hinterland. This leads ultimately to the formation of a regional load center network, strengthening the position of the port as a gateway.
Many factors favor the emergence of this phase, namely:. Cargo at ports always required some transshipment to smaller ships used a feeders to smaller ports. For obvious reasons, it is impossible to connect directly all possible port pairs, so transshipment is required to insure connectivity within the global trading system.
Transshipment was initially developed to service smaller ports unable to accommodate larger containerships, which is commonly because of limited draft and port infrastructure. However, as maritime networks became increasingly complex, specialized transshipment hubs emerged. Transshipment requires significant yard space as containers are stored up for a few days while waiting for the connecting ship s to be serviced. The growth in global trade has involved greater quantities of containers in circulation, which has incited maritime shipping companies to rely more on transshipment hubs to connect different regions of the world.
In such a context, many gateway ports were facing the challenge of handling export, import and transshipment containers. Maritime shipping companies also elect for transshipment as a way to use more rationally their networks; more ports are serviced without increasing ship assets. In a conventional deep sea container service, a maritime range such as the American East Coast or Northern Europe involve several port calls. If the volume is not sufficient, this may impose additional costs for maritime companies that are facing the dilemma between market coverage and operational efficiency.
There are several factors why transshipment hubs are used, particularly with the growing size of containerships that forces a lower number of port calls. An intermediate hub or transshipment hub is a port terminal used for ship-to-ship operations within a maritime transport system. The term offshore hub has often been used to characterize such locations because the cargo handled at the port of destination is transshipped at a location commonly in a third country. There are several patterns in which intermediate hubs can be inserted by connecting long distance and short distance feeder maritime services, by connecting different long distance services and by connecting services calling different ports along a similar maritime range.
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A geography of transshipment hubs has emerged along several regional markets and with different levels of specialization transshipment incidence. The most common market pattern is hubbing where an intermediate hub links regional port calls to mainline long distance services. Intermediate hub terminals can thus become effective competitive tools since the frequency and possibly the timeliness of services can be improved.
By using an intermediate hub terminal in conjunction with short sea shipping services, often organized along a sequence, it is possible to reduce the number of port calls and increase the throughput of the port calls left. Transshipment also comes with a level of risk for the cargo since containers are handled more times than for direct services. This is notably the case for the chemical industry. While in theory pure intermediate hubs do not have an hinterland, but a significant foreland, the impact of feedering mainly by short sea shipping confers them a significant indirect hinterland.
Feedering combines short sea and deep sea containerized shipping at a hub where traffic is redistributed, such as for the Caribbean. The usage of larger containerships has lead to the concentration of traffic at terminals able to accommodate them in terms of draft and transshipment capacity. Smaller ports, particularly those well connected to inland transport systems, become feeders through the use of short sea shipping.
As the transshipment business remains a highly volatile business, offshore hubs might sooner or later show ambition to develop services that add value to the cargo instead of simply moving boxes between vessels. The intermediate hub enables a level of accessibility that incites them to look beyond their conventional transshipment role. This includes actions to extract more values out of cargo passing through and, as such, get more economic rent out of transshipment facilities.
Such strategies have led to some transshipment hubs, such as Gioia Tauro and Algeciras, to develop inland rail services to capture and serve the economic centers in the distant hinterlands directly. A more common strategy is the development of port-centric logistics zones. The multiplying effects of being an intermediate hub in terms of frequency of port calls and connectivity to the global economy can thus be leveraged for developing hinterland activities.
The port and its geography therefore continues to adapt to technological and economic changes, leading to a variety of location factors and associated port functions such as manufacturing ports, industrial ports, gateway ports and transshipment ports. Authors: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue and Dr. Theo Notteboom Ports are harbor areas in which marine terminal facilities are transferring cargo and passengers between ships and land transportation.
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Ports and Port Sites Ports are points of convergence between two geographical domains of freight circulation sometimes passengers ; the land and maritime domains. Maritime access , which refers to the physical capacity of the site to accommodate ship operations.
It includes the tidal range, which is the difference between the high and low tide, as normal ship operations cannot handle variations of more than 3 meters. Channel and berth depths are also very important to accommodate modern cargo ships. A standard Panamax ship of 65, deadweight tons requires more than 12 meters 40 feet of depth. Many ports are also impacted by sedimentation, particularly ports in river deltas.
Some river ports may be impacted by periods of flooding and drought while other ports may be impeded or closed during winter because of ice conditions. Maritime interface. Indicates the amount of space that is available to support maritime access, namely the amount of shoreline that has good maritime access. This attribute is very important since ports are linear entities. Even if a port site has an excellent maritime access, namely deep water waterways, there may not be enough land available to guarantee its future development and expansion.
Containerization has expanded the land consumption requirements of many ports. It is therefore not surprising to see that modern port expansion projects involve significant capital investments to create artificial port facilities providing more room for this interface. Infrastructures and equipment. The port site must have infrastructures such as piers, basins, stacking or storage areas, warehouses, and equipment such as cranes, all of which involving high levels of capital investment.
In turn, these infrastructures consume land which must be available to ensure port expansion. Modern container terminals rely on an unique array of infrastructure, including portainers , stacking yards serviced by gantry cranes and the vehicles used to move containers around the terminal, such as straddle carriers. TiO 2 abundances can reach up to 15 wt. A major difference between terrestrial and lunar basalts is the near-total absence of water in any form in the lunar basalts.
Lunar basalts do not contain hydrogen-bearing minerals like the amphiboles and phyllosilicates that are common in terrestrial basalts due to alteration or metamorphism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Moon — Oceanus Procellarum "Ocean of Storms". Ancient rift valleys — context. Ancient rift valleys — closeup artist's concept. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Solar System portal. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 26 July Nature Magazine. Bibcode : Natur. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Hiesinger, J. Head, U. Wolf, R. Jaumanm, and G. Neukum Bibcode : JGRE.. Head III Bibcode : JGR Earth Planet.
Wieczorek; et al. Bibcode : RvMG Jeffrey Taylor August 31,