The Cloud Over Us
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Recipe for a cloud
The invisible cloud-seeding chemicals are dispersed in the atmosphere at around 20, feet, in front of incoming moisture fronts, enhancing contrails from jet air traffic and often spawning cloud cover prior to the storm's arrival. Silver iodide aerosols are invisible once dispersed, and the contrails from the planes burning the flares are minimal and usually disappear because these are small jets that are already at their cruising altitude; that is, using relatively little fuel. However, when large aircraft ascend through the seeded fields of silver iodide at these higher altitudes, their contrails become instantly visible.
The extreme photosensitivity of the crystalline-shaped silver iodide aerosols combine with the highly-reflective ice crystals from the exhaust to form bright white contrail wakes behind the plane that tend to persist rather than disperse. Weather modification companies use fleets of jets and high-altitude propeller planes that have flares fixed to the wings of the aircraft. When the flares burn, they release silver iodide, a salt-based chemical potassium iodide and silver nitrate , which provides abundant cloud condensation nuclei to spawn and thicken clouds.
Cloud seeders ignite as many flares as possible before incoming storms in order to maximize precipitation. There are other less common applications for cloud seeding, such as breaking up hailstorms with surfactants in order to reduce damage, but precipitation enhancement is the primary reason for weather modification. In the United States, county governments are typically the ones who hire weather modification companies to seed clouds.
The programs are designed to enhance precipitation and increase water supplies. These ongoing precipitation enhancement projects are typically paid for by consumers through a Public Purpose Program surcharge on their utility bills.
Local governments see cloud seeding as a good value for obtaining additional water; other sources are more costly, if any are even available. Dry states in the US like California have seeded the atmosphere with silver iodide every year since the s. Other states have caught on and, as the worldwide water shortage begins to affect more and more cities, the weather modification industry has expanded drastically over the past few decades.
Counties in these U.
Most other states have also experimented with weather modification. For more, just Google "precipitation enhancement" or "cloud seeding" plus your state. Countries worldwide use cloud seeding regularly. As global water supplies diminish, few alternatives exist to provide enough water for growing populations and increasing agricultural needs. Just as most western states in the US conduct ongoing cloud seeding programs for precipitation enhancement, almost any country you can name uses cloud seeding to increase rainfall and snowpack that keeps rivers flowing through the summer, including Europe, South America, the Middle East, Asia and even Australia.
China seeds the clouds in over 2, counties. The massive amounts of cloud condensation nuclei result in thicker, more persistent contrails, more artificial clouds and hazy skies over Earth's northern hemisphere. Artificial clouds cool AND warm the Earth.
Dark cloud over OPM leaves employees fearing long-term damage
Like natural clouds, artificial clouds can drastically affect the weather: In the daytime they block the sun, creating shade and reflecting some solar radiation back into space. But at night, clouds have a blanketing effect that keeps warm air trapped. The coldest nights are usually cloudless ones since the heat can escape from the Earth. Clouds also absorb and re-emit heat, so cloud cover makes it even warmer at night. Warmer air also means higher pressure, and high pressures can also help repel some storms, preventing rain.
Artificial clouds can intensify storms.
What is cloud computing? A beginner’s guide | Microsoft Azure
When a moisture front presents itself, cloud seeding companies go into action, dispersing silver iodide in front of the incoming storm These hygroscopic aerosols provide a field of CCNs for jet exhaust moisture to bond with and, combined with the higher ice crystal saturation that comes from moisture preceding the storm, aircraft can spawn thick clouds before the storm clouds arrive.
This creates a shady area in the path of the incoming front, providing a low-pressure "downhill run" for the storm. In fact, this can allow some precipitation to arrive that would otherwise be repelled by higher pressure. Visible contrail clouds begin to form when jets reach a high enough altitude— around 25, feet— and tend to stop when the plane reaches its cruising altitude, where the ice crystal saturation is lower and the jet is using less fuel. In the United States, weather typically moves across the country from left to right with the jet stream.
This means storms we intensify in the western states tend to flow toward the eastern states. Through precipitation enhancement programs, we thicken and accelerate storms, which continue eastward with the winds How often do the western states seed the clouds? Every time there's potential for rain or snow. We need the water. But who is aware of the downstream consequences?
Artificial clouds destroy the ozone layer. Recently scientists found that stratospheric water vapor destroys ozone. This is troubling because in addition to adding CO2 directly into the upper atmosphere, jet aircraft inject their water vapor into the lower stratosphere where the ozone layer helps protect the Earth from solar radiation.
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NASA researchers also found that high-altitude clouds are formed around condensation nuclei comprised of "metallic aerosols and mineral dust"-- the ingredients that are in cloud-seeding flares. In addition, our heavy cloud seeding practices using salt-based material may temporarily inhibit evaporation in some areas by increasing the surface salinity of water bodies that provide the humidity for cloud formation.
Some companies also pay third-party service providers to host their private cloud. A private cloud is one in which the services and infrastructure are maintained on a private network. Hybrid clouds combine public and private clouds, bound together by technology that allows data and applications to be shared between them. By allowing data and applications to move between private and public clouds, a hybrid cloud gives your business greater flexibility, more deployment options and helps optimise your existing infrastructure, security and compliance.
Most cloud computing services fall into four broad categories: infrastructure as a service IaaS , platform as a service PaaS , serverless and software as a service SaaS. These are sometimes called the cloud computing stack because they build on top of one another. Knowing what they are and how they are different makes it easier to accomplish your business goals.
The most basic category of cloud computing services. With IaaS, you rent IT infrastructure—servers and virtual machines VMs , storage, networks, operating systems—from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis. Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications. PaaS is designed to make it easier for developers to quickly create web or mobile apps, without worrying about setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure of servers, storage, network and databases needed for development.
Overlapping with PaaS, serverless computing focuses on building app functionality without spending time continually managing the servers and infrastructure required to do so. The cloud provider handles the setup, capacity planning and server management for you. Serverless architectures are highly scalable and event-driven, only using resources when a specific function or trigger occurs. Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. With SaaS, cloud providers host and manage the software application and underlying infrastructure and handle any maintenance, like software upgrades and security patching.
Users connect to the application over the Internet, usually with a web browser on their phone, tablet or PC. If you use an online service to send email, edit documents, watch movies or TV, listen to music, play games or store pictures and other files, it is likely that cloud computing is making it all possible behind the scenes. The first cloud computing services are barely a decade old, but already a variety of organisations—from tiny startups to global corporations, government agencies to non-profits—are embracing the technology for all sorts of reasons.
Quickly build, deploy and scale applications—web, mobile and API. Take advantage of cloud-native technologies and approaches, such as containers, Kubernetes , microservices architecture, API-driven communication and DevOps. Reduce application development cost and time by using cloud infrastructures that can easily be scaled up or down. Protect your data more cost-efficiently—and at massive scale—by transferring your data over the Internet to an offsite cloud storage system that is accessible from any location and any device.
Unify your data across teams, divisions and locations in the cloud. Then use cloud services, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, to uncover insights for more informed decisions. Connect with your audience anywhere, anytime, on any device with high-definition video and audio with global distribution. Use intelligent models to help engage customers and provide valuable insights from the data captured. Also known as software as a service SaaS , on-demand software lets you offer the latest software versions and updates around to customers—anytime they need, anywhere they are.
Microsoft is a leading global provider of cloud computing services for businesses of all sizes. Home Overview What is cloud computing? What is cloud computing? Start free. AWS Future of cloud. Top benefits of cloud computing. Global scale. Types of cloud computing. Public cloud. Private cloud.